Propanediol: a moisture capturing humectant, meaning it draws water from the atmosphere to your skin or hair to offer hydration. It has a dry, powdery skin feel with no tackiness .
Niacinamide: The claims for niacinamide are pretty substantial and they are backed up by studies and good science. Studies have shown that it can increase skin’s keratin, ceramides, and barrier lipids which results in a reduction of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and an increase in collagen synthesis.
Topical application can result in a 23% reduction in sebum production and pore diameter. It can reduce hyperpigmentation of age and sun spots. And it can reduce the damage from environmental causes, which reduces the irritation, inflammation, and skin redness from things like the sun, cold, or weather as well as application of straight SLS.
Niacinamide can reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and decreases skin blotchiness and “pebbling” or roughness on facial skin. It also behaves as an anti-inflammatory.
Carob etxtract: An anti-oxidant and skin brightener; it inhibits the production of tyrosinase, an enzyme essential for the production of melanin. No tyrosinase = no melanin production = reduction in the production of things like age spots.
N Acetyl Glucosamine:a bio-identical ingredient that can reduce hyperpigmentation in the skin, and has been shown to work well when combined with niacinamide. It can also increase hydration of our skin by increasing the production of hyaluronic acid in our skin. It can increase the collagen production and elasticity of the skin, increase the speed of wound healing, and increase exfoliation.
Niacinamide and N-acetyl Glucosamine in combination reduce sebum production and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL)
Calendula: An astringent, anti-septic, wound and burn healer, free radical scavenger, irritation mitigator, and all around skin soother. It acts as a great anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory, too.
Sodium PCA: Humectant.
Panthenol: Vitamin B5; Humectant. Improves skin hydratrion, reduces redness and inflammation, increases wonud healing by stimulating skin epitheliazation, improves skin barrier mechanism repair, mitigates itching and soothes irritation.
Tocopherol: Vitamin E, this vitamin is lipid-soluble, which means that it helps in cell-membrane stability. The antioxidant content in Vitamin E protect our cells from the negative effects of free radicals.
Polyquaternium-51: Cationic polymer derived from sugar. A powerful humectant and protective film former. Stabilizes epidermal phospholipids while significantly improving moisture retention.
Sodium hyaluronate: has been observed to increase the rate of cellular repair while minimizing the formation of scarred tissue, sodium hyaluronate is intended to facilitate cellular repair and renewal to minimize cracking and damage.
Urea: Urea is capable of binding water in the stratum corneum to prevent water loss while effectively moisturizing the skin. Urea also functions as an effective exfoliating agent to help smooth and soften the skin, which normally becomes rough and flakey after desiccation. Both sodium PCA and urea are components of the body’s natural moisturizing factors (NMF), which function as the body’s methods to retain moisture.
Trehalose: Trehalose is a glucose disaccharide that facilitates osmo-regulation, and it can be found in fungi, bacteria, some amphibians and many invertebrates that are forced to survive in desiccating environments. It functions as a carbohydrate reserve in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to stabilize proteins during heat shock and suppresses denatured protein aggregation. Trehalose is also important for overcoming environmental osmotic and oxidative stresses. Topical application of the disaccharide may improve epidermal barrier function, and possibly prevent heat shock.